Wednesday, 9 March 2011

VINCHUCA BUG (Chagas disease)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Chagas disease (Portuguese: doença de Chagas, Spanish: enfermedad de Chagas-Mazza, mal de Chagas in both languages; also called American trypanosomiasis) is a tropical parasitic disease caused by the flagellate protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. T. cruzi is commonly transmitted to humans and other mammals by an insect vector, the blood-sucking bugs of the subfamily Triatominae (family Reduviidae) most commonly species belonging to the Triatoma, Rhodnius, and Panstrongylus genera.The disease may also be spread through blood transfusion and organ transplantation, ingestion of food contaminated with parasites, and from a mother to her fetus.
The symptoms of Chagas disease vary over the course of an infection. In the early, acute stage, symptoms are mild and usually produce no more than local swelling at the site of infection. The initial acute phase is responsive to antiparasitic treatments, with 60-90% cure rates. After 4–8 weeks, individuals with active infections enter the chronic phase of Chagas disease that is asymptomatic for 60-80% of chronically infected individuals through their lifetime. The antiparasitic treatments also appear to delay or prevent the development of disease symptoms during the chronic phase of the disease, but 20-40% of chronically infected individuals will still eventually develop life-threatening heart and digestive system disorders. The currently available antiparasitic treatments for Chagas disease are benznidazole and nifurtimox, which can cause temporary side effects in many patients including skin disorders, brain toxicity, and digestive system irritation.
Chagas disease is contracted primarily in the Americas, particularly in poor, rural areas of Mexico, Central America, and South America; very rarely, the disease has originated in the Southern United States. The insects that spread the disease are known by various local names, including vinchuca in Argentina, Bolivia, Chile and Paraguay, barbeiro (the barber) in Brazil, pito in Colombia, chinche in Central America, chipo in Venezuela, chupança, chinchorro, and "the kissing bug". It is estimated that as many as 8 to 11 million people in Mexico, Central America, and South America have Chagas disease, most of whom do not know they are infected. Large-scale population movements from rural to urban areas of Latin America and to other regions of the world have increased the geographic distribution of Chagas disease, and cases have been noted in many countries, particularly in Europe. Control strategies have mostly focused on eliminating the triatomine insect vector and preventing transmission from other sources.

Contents


Signs and symptoms

Gross anatomy of a heart that has been damaged by chronic Chagas disease. See also: Chagas heart, radiology
The human disease occurs in two stages: an acute stage, which occurs shortly after an initial infection, and a chronic stage that develops over many years.
The acute phase lasts for the first few weeks or months of infection. It usually occurs unnoticed because it is symptom free or exhibits only mild symptoms that are not unique to Chagas disease. These can include fever, fatigue, body aches, headache, rash, loss of appetite, diarrhea, and vomiting. The signs on physical examination can include mild enlargement of the liver or spleen, swollen glands, and local swelling (a chagoma) where the parasite entered the body. The most recognized marker of acute Chagas disease is called Romaña's sign, which includes swelling of the eyelids on the side of the face near the bite wound or where the bug feces were deposited or accidentally rubbed into the eye. Rarely, young children, or adults may die from the acute disease due to severe inflammation/infection of the heart muscle (myocarditis) or brain (meningoencephalitis).The acute phase also can be severe in people with weakened immune systems.
If symptoms develop during the acute phase, they usually resolve spontaneously within 3–8 weeks in approximately 90% of individuals.Although the symptoms resolve, even with treatment the infection persists and enters a chronic phase. Of individuals with chronic Chagas disease, 60-80% will never develop symptoms (called indeterminate chronic Chagas disease), while the remaining 20-40% will develop life-threatening heart and/or digestive disorders during their lifetime (called determinate chronic Chagas disease). In 10% of individuals the disease progresses directly from the acute form to a symptomatic clinical form of chronic Chagas disease.
The symptomatic (determinate) chronic stage affects the nervous system, digestive system and heart. About two thirds of people with chronic symptoms have cardiac damage, including cardiomyopathy, which causes heart rhythm abnormalities and may result in sudden death. About one third of patients go on to develop digestive system damage, resulting in dilation of the digestive tract (megacolon and megaesophagus), accompanied by severe weight loss. Swallowing difficulties (secondary achalasia) may be the first symptom of digestive disturbances and may lead to malnutrition. Twenty to fifty percent of individuals with intestinal involvement also exhibit cardiac involvement. Up to 10% of chronically infected individuals develop neuritis that results in altered tendon reflexes and sensory impairment. Isolated cases exhibit central nervous system involvement, including dementia, confusion, chronic encephalopathy and sensitivity and motor deficits.
The clinical manifestations of Chagas disease are due to cell death in the target tissues that occurs during the infective cycle, by sequentially inducing an inflammatory response, cellular lesions, and fibrosis. For example, intracellular amastigotes destroy the intramural neurons of the autonomic nervous system in the intestine and heart, leading to megaintestine and heart aneurysms, respectively. If left untreated, Chagas disease can be fatal, in most cases due to heart muscle damage.

Transmission

Rhodnius prolixus is the principal vector in Colombia, Venezuela, Guatemala, Honduras and some parts of Nicaragua and El Salvador.
In Chagas-endemic areas, the main mode of transmission is through an insect vector called a triatomine bug.[1] A triatomine becomes infected with T. cruzi by feeding on the blood of an infected person or animal. During the day, triatomines hide in crevices in the walls and roofs. The bugs emerge at night, when the inhabitants are sleeping. Because they tend to feed on people’s faces, triatomine bugs are also known as “kissing bugs.” After they bite and ingest blood, they defecate on the person. Triatomines pass T. cruzi parasites (called trypomastigotes) in feces left near the site of the bite wound. Scratching the site of the bite causes the trypomastigotes to enter the host through the wound, or through intact mucous membranes, such as the conjunctiva. Once inside the host, the trypomastigotes invade cells, where they differentiate into intracellular amastigotes. The amastigotes multiply by binary fission and differentiate into trypomastigotes, which are then released into the bloodstream. This cycle is repeated in each newly infected cell. Replication resumes only when the parasites enter another cell or are ingested by another vector.[1] (See also: Life cycle and transmission of T. cruzi)
Dense vegetation (such as that of tropical rainforests) and urban habitats are not ideal for the establishment of the human transmission cycle. However, in regions where the sylvatic habitat and its fauna are thinned by economical exploitation and human habitation, such as in newly deforested areas, piassava palm culture areas, and some parts of the Amazon region, a human transmission cycle may develop as the insects search for new food sources.[8]
T. cruzi can also be transmitted through blood transfusions. With the exception of blood derivatives (such as fractionated antibodies), all blood components are infective. The parasite remains viable at 4°C for at least 18 days or up to 250 days when kept at room temperature. It is unclear whether T. cruzi can be transmitted through frozen-thawed blood components.[9]
Other modes of transmission include organ transplantation, through breast milk,[10] and by accidental laboratory exposure. Chagas disease can also be spread congenitally (from a pregnant woman to her baby) through the placenta, and accounts for approximately 13% of stillborn deaths in parts of Brazil.[11]
In 1991, farm workers in the state of Paraíba, Brazil, were infected by eating contaminated food; transmission has also occurred via contaminated açaí palm fruit juice and sugar cane juice.[12][13][14] A 2007 outbreak in 103 Venezuelan school children was attributed to contaminated guava juice.[15]

Diagnosis

Photomicrograph of Giemsa-stained Trypanosoma cruzi (CDC)
The presence of T. cruzi is diagnostic of Chagas disease. It can be detected by microscopic examination of fresh anticoagulated blood, or its buffy coat, for motile parasites; or by preparation of thin and thick blood smears stained with Giemsa, for direct visualization of parasites. Microscopically, T. cruzi can be confused with Trypanosoma rangeli, which is not known to be pathogenic in humans. Isolation of T. cruzi can occur by inoculation into mice, by culture in specialized media (e.g., NNN, LIT); and by xenodiagnosis,[16] where uninfected Reduviidae bugs are fed on the patient's blood, and their gut contents examined for parasites.[2]
Various immunoassays for T. cruzi are available and can be used to distinguish among strains (zymodemes of T.cruzi with divergent pathogenicities). These tests include: detecting complement fixation, indirect hemagglutination, indirect fluorescence assays, radioimmunoassays, and ELISA. Alternatively, diagnosis and strain identification can be made using polymerase chain reaction (PCR).[2]

Prevention

Awareness and prevention campaign poster in Cayenne, French Guiana, 2008
There is currently no vaccine against Chagas disease[17] and prevention is generally focused on fighting the vector Triatoma by using sprays and paints containing insecticides (synthetic pyrethroids), and improving housing and sanitary conditions in rural areas.[18] For urban dwellers, spending vacations and camping out in the wilderness or sleeping at hostels or mud houses in endemic areas can be dangerous; a mosquito net is recommended. Some stepstones of vector control include:
  • A yeast trap tested for monitoring infestations of certain species of triatomine bugs (Triatoma sordida, Triatoma brasiliensis, Triatoma pseudomaculata, and Panstrongylus megistus).[19]
  • Promising results were gained with the treatment of vector habitats with the fungus Beauveria bassiana.[20]
  • Targeting the symbionts of Triatominae through paratransgenesis.[21]
A number of potential vaccines are currently being tested. Vaccination with Trypanosoma rangeli has produced positive results in animal models.[22] More recently, the potential of DNA vaccines for immunotherapy of acute and chronic Chagas disease is being tested by several research groups.[23]
Blood transfusion was formerly the second most common mode of transmission for Chagas disease, but the development and implementation of blood bank screening tests has dramatically reduced this risk in the last decade. Blood donations in all endemic Latin American countries undergo Chagas screening, and testing is expanding in countries, such as France, Spain and the United States, that have significant or growing populations of immigrants from endemic areas.[24][25] In Spain, donors are evaluated with a questionnaire to identify individuals at risk of Chagas exposure for screening tests.[25] The US FDA has approved two Chagas tests including one recently approved in April 2010, and has published guidelines that recommend testing of all donated blood and tissue products.[25][26] While these tests are not required in U.S., it is estimated that 75-90% of the blood supply is currently tested for Chagas, including all units collected by the American Red Cross which accounts for 40% of the U.S. blood supply.[26][27] The Chagas Biovigilance Network reports current incidents of Chagas positive blood products in the United States, as reported by labs using the screening test approved by the FDA in 2007.[28]

Management

There are two approaches to treating Chagas disease, antiparasitic treatment, to kill the parasite; and symptomatic treatment, to manage the symptoms and signs of infection.

Medication

Antiparasitic treatment is most effective early in the course of infection, but is not limited to cases in the acute phase. Drugs of choice include azole or nitro derivatives such as benznidazole[29] or nifurtimox. Both agents are limited in their capacity to effect parasitologic cure (a complete elimination of T. cruzi from the body), especially in chronically infected patients, and resistance to these drugs has been reported.[30] Studies suggest that antiparasitic treatment leads to parasitological cure in about 60-85% of adults and more than 90% of infants treated in the first year of acute phase Chagas disease. Children (age 6 to 12-years) with chronic disease have a cure rate of about 60% with benznidazole. While the rate of cure declines the longer an adult has been infected with Chagas, treatment with benznidazole has been shown to slow the onset of heart disease in adults with chronic Chagas infections.[2][4]
Treatment of chronic infection in women prior to or during pregnancy does not appear to reduce the probability the disease will be passed on to the infant. Likewise, it is unclear whether prophylactic treatment of chronic infection is beneficial in persons who will undergo immunosuppression (e.g., organ transplant recipients) or in persons who are already immunosuppressed (e.g., those with HIV infection).[2]

Complications

In the chronic stage, treatment involves managing the clinical manifestations of the disease. For example, pacemakers and medications for irregular heartbeats, such as the anti-arrhythmia drug amiodarone, may be life saving for some patients with chronic cardiac disease,[31] while surgery may be required for megaintestine. The disease cannot be cured in this phase, however. Chronic heart disease caused by Chagas disease is now a common reason for heart transplantation surgery. Until recently, however, Chagas disease was considered a contraindication for the procedure, since the heart damage could recur as the parasite was expected to seize the opportunity provided by the immunosuppression that follows surgery.[32] It was noted that survival rates in Chagas patients could be significantly improved by using lower dosages of the immunosuppressant drug ciclosporin. Recently, direct stem cell therapy of the heart muscle using bone marrow cell transplantation has been shown to dramatically reduce risks of heart failure in Chagas patients.[33]

Experimental treatments

Several experimental treatments have shown promise in animal models. These include inhibitors of oxidosqualene cyclase and squalene synthase,[34][35] cysteine protease inhibitors,[34][36] dermaseptins collected from frogs in the genus Phyllomedusa (P. oreades and P. distincta),[37] the sesquiterpene lactone dehydroleucodine (DhL) which affects the growth of cultured epimastigote–phase Trypanosoma cruzi,[38] inhibitors of purine uptake,[34] and inhibitors of enzymes involved in trypanothione metabolism.[39] It is hoped that new drug targets may be revealed following the sequencing of the T. cruzi genome.[40]

Epidemiology

Chagas in Latin America (A:Endemic zones)
Chagas disease affects 8-10 million people living in endemic Latin American countries, with and additional 300,000-400,000 living in non-endemic countries including Spain and the United States. An estimated 41,200 new cases occur annually in endemic countries and that 14,400 infants are born with congenital Chagas disease annually. About 20,000 deaths are attributed to Chagas disease each year.[2][4]
The disease is present in 18 countries on the American continents, ranging from the southern United States to northern Argentina.[1] Chagas exists in two different ecological zones. In the Southern Cone region the main vector lives in and around human homes. In Central America and Mexico the main vector species lives both inside dwellings and in uninhabited areas. In both zones Chagas occurs almost exclusively in rural areas, where triatomine breed and feed on the over 150 species from 24 families of domestic and wild mammals, as well as humans, that are the natural reservoirs of T.cruzi.[41] Although Triatominae bugs feed on birds, they appear to be immune against infection and therefore are not considered to be a T. cruzi reservoir. Even when colonies of insects are eradicated from a house and surrounding domestic animal shelters, they can re-emerge from plants or animals that are part of the ancient, sylvatic (referring to wild animals) infection cycle. This is especially likely in zones with mixed open savannah, with clumps of trees interspersed by human habitation.[42]
Disability-adjusted life year for chagas disease per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004.[43]
  no data
  < 10
  10-20
  20-30
  30-40
  40-50
  50-75
  75-100
  100-150
  150-200
  200-250
  250-450
  > 450
The primary wildlife reservoirs for Trypanosoma cruzi in the United States include opossums, raccoons, armadillos, squirrels, woodrats and mice.[44] Opossums are particularly important as reservoirs because the parasite can complete its life cycle in the anal glands of the animal without having to re-enter the insect vector.[44] Recorded prevalence of the disease in opossums in the U.S. ranges from 8.3%[44] up to 37.5%.[45] Studies on raccoons in the Southeast have yielded infection rates ranging from 47%[46] to as low as 15.5%.[44] Armadillo prevalence studies have been described in Louisiana and range from a low of 1.1%[45] up to 28.8%.[47] Additionally small rodents including squirrels, mice and rats are important in the sylvatic transmission cycle because of their importance as bloodmeal sources for the insect vectors. A Texas study revealed 17.3% percent T. cruzi prevalence in 75 specimens representing four separate small rodent species.[48]
Chronic Chagas disease remains a major health problem in many Latin American countries, despite the effectiveness of hygienic and preventive measures, such as eliminating the transmitting insects. However, several landmarks have been achieved in the fight against Chagas disease in Latin America including a reduction by 72% of the incidence of human infection in children and young adults in the countries of the Southern Cone Initiative, and at least three countries (Uruguay, in 1997, and Chile, in 1999, and Brazil in 2006) have been certified free of vectorial and transfusional transmission.[2][49][50] In Argentina vectorial transmission has been interrupted in 13 of the 19 endemic provinces.[49] and major progress toward this goal has also been made in both Paraguay and Bolivia.
Screening of donated blood, blood components, solid organ donors, as well as donors of cells, tissues and cell and tissue products for T. cruzi is mandated in all Chagas endemic countries and has been implemented.[51] Approximately 300,000 infected people live in the United States, which is likely the result of immigration from Latin American countries.[52] With increased population movements, the possibility of transmission by blood transfusion became more substantial in the United States. Transfusion blood and tissue products are now actively screened in the U.S., thus addressing and minimizing this risk.[53]

History

Carlos Chagas, in his laboratory at the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz.
The disease was named after the Brazilian physician and infectologist Carlos Chagas, who first described it in 1909,[54][55][56][57] but the disease was not seen as a major public health problem in humans until the 1960s (the outbreak of Chagas disease in Brazil in the 1920s went widely ignored[58]). He discovered that the intestines of Triatomidae (now Reduviidae: Triatominae) harbored a flagellate protozoan, a new species of the Trypanosoma genus, and was able to prove experimentally that it could be transmitted to marmoset monkeys that were bitten by the infected bug. Later studies showed that squirrel monkeys were also vulnerable to infection.[59]
Chagas named the pathogenic parasite Trypanosoma cruzi[54] and later that year as Schizotrypanum cruzi,[56] both honoring Oswaldo Cruz, the noted Brazilian physician and epidemiologist who fought successfully epidemics of yellow fever, smallpox, and bubonic plague in Rio de Janeiro and other cities in the beginning of the 20th century. Chagas’ work is unique in the history of medicine because he was the only researcher so far to describe solely and completely a new infectious disease: its pathogen, vector, host, clinical manifestations, and epidemiology.
Nevertheless, he believed (falsely) until 1925 that the main infection route was by the bite of the insect—and not by its feces, as was proposed by his colleague Emile Brumpt in 1915 and assured by Silveira Dias in 1932, Cardoso in 1938, and Brumpt himself in 1939.[citation needed] Chagas was also the first to unknowingly discover and illustrate the parasitic fungal genus Pneumocystis, later infamously to be linked to PCP (Pneumocystis pneumonia in AIDS victims).[55] Confusion between the two pathogens' life-cycles led him to briefly recognize his genus Schizotrypanum, but following the description of Pneumocystis by others as an independent genus, Chagas returned to the use of the name Trypanosoma cruzi.
In Argentina, the disease is known as Mal de Chagas-Mazza, in honor of Salvador Mazza, the Argentine physician who in 1926 began investigating the disease and over the years became the principal researcher of this disease in the country. Mazza produced the first scientific confirmation of the existence of Trypanosoma cruzi in Argentina in 1927, eventually leading to support from local and European medical schools and Argentine government policy makers.[60]
It has been hypothesized that Charles Darwin might have suffered from Chagas disease as a result of a bite of the so-called Great Black Bug of the Pampas (vinchuca) (see Charles Darwin's illness). The episode was reported by Darwin in his diaries of the Voyage of the Beagle as occurring in March 1835 to the east of the Andes near Mendoza. Darwin was young and generally in good health, though six months previously he had been ill for a month near Valparaiso, but in 1837, almost a year after he returned to England, he began to suffer intermittently from a strange group of symptoms, becoming incapacitated for much of the rest of his life. Attempts to test Darwin's remains at the Westminster Abbey by using modern PCR techniques were met with a refusal by the Abbey's curator.

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    i have contacted about 6 different spell caster and i was
    just been SUCKED. well that the past.
    Am very happy now that am cured finally by Dr Oza.
    I contacted
    Dr Oza just last week when i was confused on who
    to contact, and he
    gave me an online Details center to fill. i filled the form
    with my
    details and he wrote back to me that it will take 48 hours
    (2DAYS) for
    the spell to be active. To my greatest surprise, after
    2DAYS he called me on phone and told me to
    go for a medical check up to confirm my STATUS. and i
    went to 6
    different hospital and i was tested NEGATIVE. so i
    decided to inform the
    general public so that you wont waste time sharing tears
    and losing
    hope.
    you can email him Dr Oza on his email
    doctorozaspellherbalhome@yahoo.com
    or you can give m a call on +1 (515) 996 6619 or you
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    body and i have been taking treatment from my doctor, few weeks ago i came on search on the internet if i could get

    any information concerning the prevention of this disease, on my search i saw a testimony of someone who has been

    healed from (Hepatitis B and Cancer) by this Man Dr Aloma and she also gave the email address of this man and

    advise we should contact him for any sickness that he would be of help, so i wrote to Dr Gumbla telling him about

    my (HERPES Virus) he told me not to worry that i was going to be cured!! hmm i never believed it,, well after all

    the procedures and remedy given to me by this man few weeks later i started experiencing changes all over me as the

    Dr assured me that i have cured,after some time i went to my doctor to confirmed if i have be finally healed behold

    it was TRUE, So friends my advise is if you have such sickness or any other at all you can email Dr Aloma on :

    (dralomaherbscure@gmail.com) or call him with +2348051095232.. THESE ARE THE THINGS DR Aloma CAN ALSO CURE..

    GONORRHEA, HIV/AIDS , LOW SPERM COUNT, MENOPAUSE DISEASE, PREGNANCY PROBLEM, SHORT SIGHTEDNESS PROBLEM, Stroke,

    Bring back ex lover or wife/husband....sir i am indeed grateful for the help i will forever recommend you to my

    friends!!!

    ReplyDelete
  6. I'm 39 years old female and I tested positive for genital herpes in 2002. I was having bad outbreaks. EXTREMELY PAINFUL. Six months ago I decided to search for herpes cure, which i get some helpful informations on how Dr OLUBAOLUBA have help so many people in curing genital herpes with the help of herbal treatment because I too believe there is someone somewhere in this world who can cure herpes completely. As of the past 2 months, however, I've been following his herpes protocol Via olubahivherbalcure@gmail.com or +2348131258106 and it stopped all outbreaks completely! To my greatest surprise I was cured completely by following the protocol of his herbal medicine . Don't be discouraged because it will also work for you.

    ReplyDelete
  7. I'm 39 years old female and I tested positive for genital herpes in 2002. I was having bad outbreaks. EXTREMELY PAINFUL. Six months ago I decided to search for herpes cure, which i get some helpful informations on how Dr OLUBAOLUBA have help so many people in curing genital herpes with the help of herbal treatment because I too believe there is someone somewhere in this world who can cure herpes completely. As of the past 2 months, however, I've been following his herpes protocol Via olubahivherbalcure@gmail.com or +2348131258106 and it stopped all outbreaks completely! To my greatest surprise I was cured completely by following the protocol of his herbal medicine . Don't be discouraged because it will also work for you.

    ReplyDelete
  8. This is a testimony i want to make.I was an HIV positive for 8 years taking anti retrovirus.As i was reading online some 5 months ago i saw a testimony on cure of HIV.I decided to give a try.Now as am telling you am very negative tested 4 times in 5 months after finishing mu cure.The cure is a pure herbs from Africa shipped to me through DHL.My cure took about 4 to 7 days.Dear brothers and sisters if you are out there,please the cure is out and rush to have yours.If you are interested,email the researcher using ehigraceherbalhivcure@gmail. com, or visit his websites http://ehigraceherbalhivcure.webs.com I will encourage every person who come across this mail to cure yourself if you are positive.THESE ARE THE THINGS Dr. Ehi. HERPES. HIV/AIDS. CANCER. ALS .

    ReplyDelete
  9. This is a testimony i want to make.I was an HIV positive for 8 years taking anti retrovirus.As i was reading online some 5 months ago i saw a testimony on cure of HIV.I decided to give a try.Now as am telling you am very negative tested 4 times in 5 months after finishing mu cure.The cure is a pure herbs from Africa shipped to me through DHL.My cure took about 4 to 7 days.Dear brothers and sisters if you are out there,please the cure is out and rush to have yours.If you are interested,email the researcher using ehigraceherbalhivcure@gmail. com, or visit his websites http://ehigraceherbalhivcure.webs.com I will encourage every person who come across this mail to cure yourself if you are positive.THESE ARE THE THINGS Dr. Ehi. HERPES. HIV/AIDS. CANCER. ALS .

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. GREAT THANKS TO DR. SAM THAT HELPED SAVED MY MARRIAGE AND HELPED ME GET PREGNANT.

      I'm Stephanie Williams from USA, for over 4 years now of my marriage i have been trying to get pregnant, this almost made my husband to divorce me because my mother in-law was planning to get him another girl, i was always crying everyday because my marital life way going down. My mother in-law made my husband believe that i was the cause of us being able to give birth, i was always crying, my heart was broken into pieces. My husband and I have been seeing a fertility specialist. We have done one IUI with no luck. My husband has a sperm count which goes up and down,the doctor has recommended him taking the Proxeed supplement which he is doing over 3 years with no change in the situation my husband who has low sperm count? It just seems to me that if the sperm are unable to fertilize the egg it will not matter how many are produced. I am was so confused until i contacted this powerful spell caster online who I saw a number of testimonies of how he has help so many of them so I sent DR. SAM a mail and I told him all my sorrows and pain he replied me and ask me not to cry any more that he will help, he sent me some instructions and caution, DR. SAM (the spell caster) performed the ritual rights and I bought some items to complete the rights and he told me to have sex with my husband within 2weeks of doing this I felt dizzy and I went to the doctor and it was confirm that I was pregnant thanks to DR. SAM spell temple now am a mother of a bouncing baby boy and joy has been restored to my marital life and am very happy, no more stress from my mother in-law. If any one needs such help don’t wait all life time to get help in getting pregnant contact DR. SAM now on his personal email : miraclefertilitysolutiontempl1@gmail.com or miraclefertilitysolutiontemple@yahoo.com or through his website: http://miraclefertilityso.wix.com/dr-sam
      You can also contact him through his mobile: +2348110496031. Contact him now for pregnancy spell and love spell to bring back your ex lover

      http://stephwilliam11.skyrock.com/

      Delete
  10. am candy william. I cannot believe this. I cannot believe that a man like Dr. ABU is still in this earth. My beloved brothers and sister fathers and mothers you all need to hear this. I was infected with gentian herpes for more than 5years now. And right now one faithful day my spirit drag me to open the internet and I search and see this man and seeing this man I no is the Gods doing so I decide to talk with him about my problems and he told me he can help me at. At first I was doubting him because for 5years I have been in this situation and now you came from no where and said you will help me. Then I said let me give him a try he ask me to get some items for the process which I did and later he send me something which I take and use it. And told me to go and sleep and once I am wake the next morning I should go for checkup. Which really I did and it was negative. Please if you no you are in any kind of problem try and reach him true email: abuhealingtemple@gmail.com and receive your own

    ReplyDelete
  11. GREAT THANKS TO DR. SAM THAT HELPED SAVED MY MARRIAGE AND HELPED ME GET PREGNANT.

    I'm Stephanie Williams from USA, for over 4 years now of my marriage i have been trying to get pregnant, this almost made my husband to divorce me because my mother in-law was planning to get him another girl, i was always crying everyday because my marital life way going down. My mother in-law made my husband believe that i was the cause of us being able to give birth, i was always crying, my heart was broken into pieces. My husband and I have been seeing a fertility specialist. We have done one IUI with no luck. My husband has a sperm count which goes up and down,the doctor has recommended him taking the Proxeed supplement which he is doing over 3 years with no change in the situation my husband who has low sperm count? It just seems to me that if the sperm are unable to fertilize the egg it will not matter how many are produced. I am was so confused until i contacted this powerful spell caster online who I saw a number of testimonies of how he has help so many of them so I sent DR. SAM a mail and I told him all my sorrows and pain he replied me and ask me not to cry any more that he will help, he sent me some instructions and caution, DR. SAM (the spell caster) performed the ritual rights and I bought some items to complete the rights and he told me to have sex with my husband within 2weeks of doing this I felt dizzy and I went to the doctor and it was confirm that I was pregnant thanks to DR. SAM spell temple now am a mother of a bouncing baby boy and joy has been restored to my marital life and am very happy, no more stress from my mother in-law. If any one needs such help don’t wait all life time to get help in getting pregnant contact DR. SAM now on his personal email : miraclefertilitysolutiontempl1@gmail.com or miraclefertilitysolutiontemple@yahoo.com or through his website: http://miraclefertilityso.wix.com/dr-sam
    You can also contact him through his mobile: +2348110496031. Contact him now for pregnancy spell and love spell to bring back your ex lover

    ReplyDelete
  12. I am from los angeles,california, I want to testify on how i got cured from HIV AIDS, I got infected with HIV AIDS disease in 2011 and I have visited several herbalists, spiritualists and pastors for cure but all to no avail, my world was gradually coming to an end until i saw a post in a health forum about a herbal spell caster from Africa who casts herbal spells to cure all kinds of deadly diseases including HIV AIDS, ALS, MND, Epilepsy, Leukemia, Asthma, Cancer, Ghonorhea etc, at first i doubted if it was real but decided to give it a try, when i contacted this herbal spell caster via his email, he prepared a herbal spell portion and sent it to me via courier service, when i received this herbal spell portion, he gave me step by step instructions on how to apply it, when i applied it as instructed, i was cured of this deadly disease within 7days, I am now HIV Negative (-) all thanks to Dr. ODUMEGU . Contact this great herbal spell caster via his Email: dr.odumeguspiritualhome@gmail.com or call 234 705 907 4351 Goodluck.

    ReplyDelete
  13. I am Christabella from New York. I was in trouble when the doctor told me that I have been diagnosed with Genital Herpes… I though about my Family, I know my Family will face a serious problem when I’m gone, I lost hope and I wept all day, but one day I was surfing the internet I found Dr. Kakudu contact number. I called him and he guided me. I asked him for solutions and he started the remedies for my health. Thank God, now everything is fine, I’m cured by Dr. Kakudu herbal medicine, I’m very thankful to Dr. Kakudu and very happy with my hubby and family. email him on drkakuduwesthealingcenter@gmail.com OR dr.kakuduwesthealingtemple@outlook.com you can also reach him on his mobile number (+2349081160306).

    Doctor Kakudu CAN AS WELL CURE THE FOLLOWING DISEASE:-
    HIV/AIDS,HERPES,CANCER,ALS

    ReplyDelete
  14. i know there are a lot of persons who are out there seeking true herbal doctor so they can be cured from herpes and i know a lot of us has falling in the hand of scammers from Nigeria but the only reason for you to smile like me is to write to Dr Mensah from Ghana via mail: herbalistmensahsacredherbaltemple@hotmail.com cause he cured me using his herbal product and now i am cured from herpes totally with my skin free from it

    ReplyDelete
  15. My husband is back!!! I had a problem with my husband 2 months ago,which lead to us apart. When he broke up with me,i was no longer myself,i felt so empty inside me. Until a friend of mine told me about one of her spells that helped her in same problem too that she found on a television program. I emailed the spell caster and I told him my problem and I did what he asked me. To cut the long story short,before I knew what was happening,not up to 48 hours,my husband gave me a call and he come back to me and told me he was sorry about what has happened, I'm so grateful to this spell caster and i will not stop publishing his name on the internet just for the good work he has done for me.If you need his help,you can email him at (greatogudugu@gmail.com)and he will also help you.

    ReplyDelete
  16. God bless Dr.owona for his marvelous work in my life, I was diagnosed of HIV since 2014 and I was taking my medications, I wasn’t satisfied i needed to get the HIV out of my system, I searched about some possible cure for HIV i saw a comment about (drowonaspelltemple@gmail.com) how he cured HIV with his herbal medicine, I contacted him and he guided me. I asked for solutions, he started the remedy for my health, he sent me the medicine through UPS SPEED POST. I took the medicine as prescribed by him and 14 days later i was cured from HIV, Dr.owona truly you are great, do you need his help also? Why don’t you contact him through his WHATSAPP NUMBER +2348115204568.. : or you can also reach him on email address, drowonaspelltemple@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete

  17. I thought there was never going to get the cure for hsv as i was told by the doctorS, over 2 years i has be on drugs to get rid of hsv in my body, is not that easy to be taken drugs for months no cure. just last year i had some persons saying about natural herbs that cured hsv & i found out if it's true the herbalist they sheared about i emailed him for question and he proof his cure to my satisfaction & more evidence. & i paid for one at the moment after taking it for 3weeks, definitely his natural herbs cured my hsv. i know some persons also need this cure you can only get the cure from Dr Lbezim his email: lbezimcurehome77@gmail.com Dr Lbezim may God join you

    ReplyDelete


  18. I have never believed in internet spell casters or spiritualist until i met Dr Babatude. In fact i will continue to

    give my thanks and share my testimony to the whole world. My Name is Vera, Please do not Judge me but i am only

    trying to share the good work Dr Amuda has done for me. I really appreciate him because i was almost going crazy when

    my husband left me and the kids for no reason. We use to live happily until his attitude towards us starts changing. I

    pleaded with him to tell me what has happened and the reason for his sudden change but he keeps saying nothing and he

    always tell me that everything was fine. But this attitude of my husband continued and it was hurting my kids and i. I

    was so confused and i never knew what to do. One day he left the house and never came back. Ohh this was worse and i

    almost went mad. I got many spell casters from the internet but all they could do was to take my money with no result. I

    became fed up and felt like killing my self but i had to sty alive for the sake of our kid.
    One weekend as i was going through the internet i saw different testimonies of how a particular man helped

    different people. I was scared to give him a trial because of my past experience with these so called spell casters. But

    this last time i decided to give this man a trial on his Email: omobabatudespelltemple@gmail.com... Ohhh and it only took 72

    hours, 3 days for this great man Dr Babatude to get my husband back to me. HE told me that my husband was under the spell of

    another woman but he was able to help me in breaking the spell and brought my husband back to the house. Ohh you can

    imagine the Joy and happiness in me, this is why i will continue to speak of the good works of this Great man. And he

    never took any money from me except little money for some items which he insisted i must be the one to provide the money

    for it, so that his sacrifice could work for me. Now my husband love me more than ever before and i got promoted in my

    place of work. Everything is just going well and perfect for my Family.
    I will never stop spreading this good news because it might also be useful to you or a person near you. Dr Babatude

    is God sent. He told me he can solve any kind of problems including:

    (1) If you want your ex back.
    (2) if you always have bad dreams.
    (3) You want to be promoted in your office.
    (4) You want women/men to run after you.
    (5) If you want a child.
    (6) You want to be rich.
    (7) You want to hold your husband/wife to be
    yours forever.
    (8) If you need financial assistance.
    (9) Herbal care
    (10) If you are not able to satisfy your wife
    sex desire due
    to low erection.
    (11) if your menstruation refuse to come
    out the day it
    suppose or over flows.
    (12) if you refused to be paid, people owing you?.
    (13) solve a land issue and get it back.
    (14) Did your family Denny you of your
    right?
    (15) want people to obey your words and do my
    wish.
    (16) Do you have a low sperm count?
    (17) bad lucks
    (18)HIV CURE
    Give this great man a trial today and you will be happy you did. omobabatudespelltemple@gmail.com or Call +2348135261392

    ReplyDelete
  19. GREAT THANKS TO DR. SAM THAT HELPED SAVED MY MARRIAGE AND HELPED ME GET PREGNANT.

    I'm Stephanie Williams from USA, for over 4 years now of my marriage i have been trying to get pregnant, this almost made my husband to divorce me because my mother in-law was planning to get him another girl, i was always crying everyday because my marital life way going down. My mother in-law made my husband believe that i was the cause of us being able to give birth, i was always crying, my heart was broken into pieces. My husband and I have been seeing a fertility specialist. We have done one IUI with no luck. My husband has a sperm count which goes up and down,the doctor has recommended him taking the Proxeed supplement which he is doing over 3 years with no change in the situation my husband who has low sperm count? It just seems to me that if the sperm are unable to fertilize the egg it will not matter how many are produced. I am was so confused until i contacted this powerful spell caster online who I saw a number of testimonies of how he has help so many of them so I sent DR. SAM a mail and I told him all my sorrows and pain he replied me and ask me not to cry any more that he will help, he sent me some instructions and caution, DR. SAM (the spell caster) performed the ritual rights and I bought some items to complete the rights and he told me to have sex with my husband within 2weeks of doing this I felt dizzy and I went to the doctor and it was confirm that I was pregnant thanks to DR. SAM spell temple now am a mother of a bouncing baby boy and joy has been restored to my marital life and am very happy, no more stress from my mother in-law. If any one needs such help don’t wait all life time to get help in getting pregnant contact DR. SAM now on his personal email : miraclefertilitysolutiontempl1@gmail.com or miraclefertilitysolutiontemple@yahoo.com or through his website: http://miraclefertilityso.wix.com/dr-sam
    You can also contact him through his mobile: +2348110496031. Contact him now for pregnancy spell and love spell to bring back your ex lover

    http://stephwilliam11.skyrock.com/

    ReplyDelete
  20. Thank God Almighty that led me to Dr Timothy I never thought i would be Herpes negative again after been diagnosed in 2011, i have tried everything possible in life from one doctor to another, one hospital to another, series of tests, different kinds of medication, i had already lost hope until i meet Great Dr. Timothy online testimonies, a specialist in herbal medication from Africa, i contacted him Drtimothyhealingtemple@gmail.com and he prepared Herpes herbal medication for me which i took for 10days and now i am completely cured. i want to use this medium to express my gratitude to him for saving my life and curing me from Herpes Hsv2, for taking away all my pains and sorrows, I'm indeed grateful and i am so happy I'm now Herpes negative. i will continue to tell the good news of your great works to everyone, if you have Herpes or other deadly disease please contact him now, Email: Drtimothyhealingtemple@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete

  21. God bless Dr. uroko for his marvelous work in my life, I was diagnosed of HERPES since 2012 and I was taking my medications, I wasn't satisfied i needed to get the HERPES out of my system, I searched about some possible cure for HERPES i saw a comment about Dr. uroko, how he cured HERPES with his herbal medicine, I contacted him and he guided me. I asked for solutions, he started the remedy for my health, he sent me the medicine through UPS SPEED POST. I took the medicine as prescribed by him and 14 days later i was cured from HERPES, Dr.uroko truly you are great, do you need his help also? Why don't you contact him through : drurokospellcaster@gmail.com or call+2347059352550
    Thanks

    ReplyDelete

  22. God bless Dr. uroko for his marvelous work in my life, I was diagnosed of HERPES since 2012 and I was taking my medications, I wasn't satisfied i needed to get the HERPES out of my system, I searched about some possible cure for HERPES i saw a comment about Dr. uroko, how he cured HERPES with his herbal medicine, I contacted him and he guided me. I asked for solutions, he started the remedy for my health, he sent me the medicine through UPS SPEED POST. I took the medicine as prescribed by him and 14 days later i was cured from HERPES, Dr.uroko truly you are great, do you need his help also? Why don't you contact him through : drurokospellcaster@gmail.com or call+2347059352550
    Thanks

    ReplyDelete
  23. Hello Everybody,
    My name is Mrs Sharon Sim. I live in Singapore and i am a happy woman today? and i told my self that any lender that rescue my family from our poor situation, i will refer any person that is looking for loan to him, he gave me happiness to me and my family, i was in need of a loan of S$250,000.00 to start my life all over as i am a single mother with 3 kids I met this honest and GOD fearing man loan lender that help me with a loan of S$250,000.00 SG. Dollar, he is a GOD fearing man, if you are in need of loan and you will pay back the loan please contact him tell him that is Mrs Sharon, that refer you to him. contact Dr Purva Pius,via email:(urgentloan22@gmail.com) Thank you.

    BORROWERS APPLICATION DETAILS


    1. Name Of Applicant in Full:……..
    2. Telephone Numbers:……….
    3. Address and Location:…….
    4. Amount in request………..
    5. Repayment Period:………..
    6. Purpose Of Loan………….
    7. country…………………
    8. phone…………………..
    9. occupation………………
    10.age/sex…………………
    11.Monthly Income…………..
    12.Email……………..

    Regards.
    Managements
    Email Kindly Contact: urgentloan22@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete

  24. I Never believed i was ever going to be HSV2 Negative again, Dr. Silver has given me reasons to be happy, i was HSV2 positive for 2years and all the means i tried for treatment was not helpful to me, but when i came on the Internet i saw great testimony about Dr Silver on how he was able to cure someone from HIV, this person said great things about this man, and advice, i decided to give him a try, he requested for my information which i sent to him, and he told me he was going to prepare for me a healing portion, which he wanted me to take for 7days, and after which i should go back to the hospital for check up, well after taking all the treatment sent to me, i went back to the Hospital for check up, and now i have been confirmed HSV2 Negative, friends if you have anything disease contact Dr Silver on any treatment for any Disease he is the one only i can show you all up to, reach him on: drsilverhealingtemple@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  25. My problem with herpes has caused me many traumas, especially on my sex life. i was cure by Dr Fred, i chose to contact him because of my past embarrassment with herpes and told him about everything which he sent me an herbal product for herpes from Dubai
    Today i can say i am cure totally from herpes, do write to Dr Fred through his email;drfredherbalcuringcenter@yahoo.com website: drfredherbalcenter.webs.com and also call him +2348139097317 so you can be cured like me

    ReplyDelete


  26. ZIKA DISEASE

    God bless Dr.UKO for his marvelous work in my life, I was diagnosed of ZIKA DISEASES since 2014 and I was taking my medications, I wasn't satisfied i needed to get the ZIKA out of my system, I searched about some possible cure for ZIKA DISEASES i saw a comment about Dr.UKO, how he cured ZIKA DISEASES with his herbal medicine, I contacted him and he guided me. I asked for solutions, he started the remedy for my health, he sent me the medicine through UPS SPEED POST. I took the medicine as prescribed by him and 7 days later i was cured from ZIKA DISEASES, Dr. UKO truly you are great, do you need his help also? Why don't you contact him through ukospelltemple@yahoo.com whatsapp him on

    +2347064650019

    DOCTOR UKO CAN AS WELL CURE THE FOLLOWING DISEASE:-

    1. HIV/AIDS
    2. HERPES
    3. CANCER
    4. ALS
    5. AMOEBIC MENINGOENCEPHALITIS
    6. ANTHRAX
    7. PLAGUE
    8. EBOLA
    9. BRING OF EX LOVER BACK TO LOVE YOU AGAIN

    ukospelltemple@yahoo.com / Website: ukospelltemple.wixsite.com/mysite


    ReplyDelete
  27. Hi,
    My name is Sarah Anik, six months ago I had sex with the third guy in my life whom i was about to marry and now I have herpes. I couldn’t believe it because he wasn’t a random guy, he’s the closet guy I’ve had as a boyfriend, but it has been a never ending nightmare since. I’ve always believed in GOD and have asked him for forgiveness which is ironic. I felt like killing myself with the taught of having a husband and family will be quite difficult and i felt like I’m not really in the room when people are talking. I didn’t know what to do and pretty much cry and pray every day to God for help and looking at my family with so much love and feeling that i have disappointed them even though they don’t know. Until God lead me to DR. mukoko online who promised to help me cure my disease through herbals. At first i didn't believe him, but to my greatest surprise i was cured completely by herbals, which medical doctor also verified that i was cured. Special thanks to DR.mukoko.
    Don't be discourage because he that did it for me will also do it for you and you can contact him through his email address dromukokospellhome@outlook.com OR drmukokospellhome@outlook.com or call him on his cellphone number +23480119035072

    ReplyDelete
  28. i know there are a lot of persons who are out there seeking true herbal doctor so they can be cured from herpes and i know a lot of us has falling in the hand of scammers from Nigeria but the only reason for you to smile like me is to write to Dr mukoko from Ghana via mail: dromukokospellhome@outlook.com OR drmukokospellhome@outlook.com ,better still call Dr mukoko customer help desk via +2348119035072 cause he cured me using his herbal product and now i am cured from herpes totally with no additional payment

    ReplyDelete
  29. I can’t believe this. A great testimony that i must share to all HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS patient in the world i never believed that their could be any complete cure for Herpes or any cure for herpes,i saw people’s testimony on blog sites of how Dr mukoko prepare herbal cure and brought them back to life again. i had to try it too and you can,t believe that in just few weeks i started using it all my pains stop gradually and i had to leave without the herpes the doctor gave to me. Right now i can tell you that few months now i have not had any pain,delay in treatment leads to death. Here is his email:dromukokospellhome@outlook.com OR drmukokospellhome@outlook.com .or call him what sapp number +2348119035072

    ReplyDelete
  30. I hope this will be of immerse benefit to someone living or just diagnosed
    of HIV. I was diagnosed of HIV 3 years ago, i came across a blog last month
    when I was browsing on my computer and i saw lot of testimonies and post
    from people making reference to a traditional doctor on how he used his
    natural herbal medicine called TATAHWE which they said can FLUSH the blood
    system from any virus or disease. Some testimonies was centered on;
    *HIV (with a very low cd4 count)
    *HEPATITIS B
    *HERPES,
    *EPILEPSY
    *CANCER,
    *DIABETIC,
    *STAPHYLOCOCCUS
    *EX BACK
    *ALS
    I decided to give it a trial, though i never believed in herbal medicine
    but i was in a way convinced with the sort of amazing testimonies i saw
    online i decided to contact him, with the response he gave, He promised to
    prepare and send the "TATAHWE" Medicine to me. It was not up to a week
    after i placed an order, I got the medicine and he instructed me to drink
    the medicine for two weeks ( only evenings before bed) after which, I
    should go back to the hospital for a Re-Test. I followed his instructions
    and i discovered that my urine became yellowish for good two weeks so
    immediately i finished the medicine i went for the test the following week,
    it was very surprising i tested negative. I can't thank dr sani enough, so
    I decided to promote him because he cured me from my disease, there's no
    disease he can't cure with his medicine. Please also spread the good news
    to others so that those with same illness can be cured.email him at
    OBORSPELLHOME@GMAIL.COM or EHIMARESPELL@GMAIL.COM, call HIM ON +2348077309081

    ReplyDelete